This technical note discusses competitive dynamics: the various and evolving actions and reactions of two firms engaged in a rivalrous relationship. By allowing us to analyze interactions at this dyadic level, the competitive dynamics perspective provides valuable insights into a firm's behavior in a variety of competitive situations and contexts.
Entrepreneurs strive to solve problems and create value through partnerships. Studying how they do that led to the hypothesis that "asking" played a critical role in the success of an entrepreneur. This note addresses studies of expert entrepreneurs and how they differ from novice entrepreneurs, including discussion on type, method, and frequency of asking, as well as effectual reasoning.
This technical note discusses how a high-potential start-up entrepreneur should use equity in building and growing a new venture. One of the most crucial things for entrepreneurs to understand is equity: Most high-growth ventures grow through equity partnerships, but most new ventures fail because relationships between founding partners and other equity partners become conflicted and impossible to
This technical note describes the problem-solving process known as A3 Thinking through the lens of an individual's weight-loss efforts. The story is easy to understand and shows how the A3 process can be integrated into one's personal life. The note details the A3 process steps of current condition, target condition, root-cause analysis, countermeasures, implementation, and standardize and sustain
This brief note provides a description of the A3 report, a classic problem-solving methodology associated with the Toyota Production System. A3 thinking may be used for many activities, including problem solving, proposal writing, and status reporting. The six elements of an A3 report are described briefly.
This technical note explains how to account for leases under Accounting Standards Codification 842. This new addition to US generally accepted accounting principles became effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. The note provides broad treatment for how a lessee will account for a short-term, operating, and financing lease, and how a lessor will account for short-term and sal
Articles published in academic journals are rich in research that can be invaluable for business management, operations, and strategy. But managers often consider the publications to be too theoretical and impractical. This note can help business practitioners how to approach academic articles and quickly extract relevant information they can apply in their decision-making to benefit their organiz
This note explores the concept of ki, or energy. It concentrates on aikido, a Japanese martial art that channels the human body's natural energy toward balance, health, grounding, and the mental clarity required to overcome obstacles and discover new insights. Aikido is a defensively oriented martial art, designed to utilize the ki of the attack in a manner that turns that energy to the detriment
The US-China trade war in 2019 led to major shifts in global trade and supply chains, highlighting the recent trend in deglobalization. This case discusses the patterns of international trade and capital flows across the two countries, determinants of trade imbalances, and the role of national savings, policies, institutions, and exchange rates. The material allows for an examination of several fa
Capital markets facilitate the appropriate exchange of money. For lenders and borrowers, the interest rate is the primary pricing mechanism that markets use in this exchange. For borrowers deemed to have higher credit risk, lenders add a risk premium to the interest rate to compensate for higher risk. Credit risk is the risk that the borrower will default on (not pay) the payments agreed upon in t
In April 2016, Mark Parker, an experienced private-equity investor, is considering an investment in MedMetric, LLC (MedMetric), a seed-stage health care information technology company. The company has a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) product that facilitated reimbursement for Medicare Advantage companies (MAs), private firms that provided an alternative way for senior citizens in the United States t
A primary requirement for managing water effectively and sustainably is an accounting framework that registers the water that is available for use (supply) and the water that is being used (demand). A common accounting analogy is a water budget, or a water account. This note focuses on the water budgets of individual countries, defining concepts including renewable water, watershed, water withdraw