This brief note provides a description of the A3 report, a classic problem-solving methodology associated with the Toyota Production System. A3 thinking may be used for many activities, including problem solving, proposal writing, and status reporting. The six elements of an A3 report are described briefly.
This technical note explains how to account for leases under Accounting Standards Codification 842. This new addition to US generally accepted accounting principles became effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. The note provides broad treatment for how a lessee will account for a short-term, operating, and financing lease, and how a lessor will account for short-term and sal
Articles published in academic journals are rich in research that can be invaluable for business management, operations, and strategy. But managers often consider the publications to be too theoretical and impractical. This note can help business practitioners how to approach academic articles and quickly extract relevant information they can apply in their decision-making to benefit their organiz
This note explores the concept of ki, or energy. It concentrates on aikido, a Japanese martial art that channels the human body's natural energy toward balance, health, grounding, and the mental clarity required to overcome obstacles and discover new insights. Aikido is a defensively oriented martial art, designed to utilize the ki of the attack in a manner that turns that energy to the detriment
The US-China trade war in 2019 led to major shifts in global trade and supply chains, highlighting the recent trend in deglobalization. This case discusses the patterns of international trade and capital flows across the two countries, determinants of trade imbalances, and the role of national savings, policies, institutions, and exchange rates. The material allows for an examination of several fa
Capital markets facilitate the appropriate exchange of money. For lenders and borrowers, the interest rate is the primary pricing mechanism that markets use in this exchange. For borrowers deemed to have higher credit risk, lenders add a risk premium to the interest rate to compensate for higher risk. Credit risk is the risk that the borrower will default on (not pay) the payments agreed upon in t
In April 2016, Mark Parker, an experienced private-equity investor, is considering an investment in MedMetric, LLC (MedMetric), a seed-stage health care information technology company. The company has a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) product that facilitated reimbursement for Medicare Advantage companies (MAs), private firms that provided an alternative way for senior citizens in the United States t
A primary requirement for managing water effectively and sustainably is an accounting framework that registers the water that is available for use (supply) and the water that is being used (demand). A common accounting analogy is a water budget, or a water account. This note focuses on the water budgets of individual countries, defining concepts including renewable water, watershed, water withdraw
When left unattended, natural resources tend to inch toward depletion, overuse, spoilage, or pollution. Common pastures get overgrazed; lakes are overfished; rivers are polluted, and so on. In the case of water, some may wonder how overuse or depletion is possible, as water is a renewable natural resource. In spite of this, depletion and overuse can occur in a practical sense and on a local level.
Convertible notes are often used to raise early-stage financing for start-up companies, frequently due to their advantages related to delayed valuation, greater speed, and lower cost of completion compared to venture capital financing. As a result, there has been a large increase in the number of early-stage companies raising capital through convertible notes over the past decade. Investors have m
The first (or "Great") Industrial Revolution occurred in Europe from roughly 1760 to 1860, and marked the end of the centuries-long feudal era and the rise of modern capitalism. To understand the modern industrial economy, it is necessary to consider the profound structural changes that produced it in the 18th and 19th centuries. New industries replaced old systems or businesses with new technolog
The searchable internet contains almost 2 billion websites. And new, text-rich sites are being added at a rapid pace: more than 700 million popped up from 2016 to 2017, according to the International Real Time Statistics Project. A lot of this web-based text is relevant to marketers: online product reviews, information about purchasing behavior, customer-to-customer interactions, and transcribed t