To avoid significant global disruption, scientists assert that global warming must be kept below a two-degree Celsius rise from preindustrial levels—a goal formalized in the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement. Meeting that challenge will require near-total decarbonization of global economic activity by 2060. The industrial sector accounts for close to a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions. Efforts to decarbonize this sector are challenged by the need to address the fossil fuel-driven thermal processes and the raw materials used in manufacturing. Identifying clean technology solutions that can meet the unique needs of each individual industry will be difficult. The report focuses on potential technology solutions for the three most carbon-intensive industries?steel, cement, and petrochemicals—and discusses the levers needed to accelerate adoption.