Explore the causes and consequences of banking panics. Consider the meaning and economic indicators of a depression. Survey the economic and social implications of inflation and deflation as government policy. Review the civic reaction to the government's deflationary policy, as reflected in the greenback movement, the Granger movement, the silverites, and widespread labor unrest. Explore ways in which the Panic of 1873 and resumption are relevant to the monetary dilemmas of the United States and other developed economies in the early 21st century.